Follow the histoire de La Ville de Calais Et Du Calaisis: Precis de L’Histoire de Morins PDF for more information. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the town in northern France.
Due to its position, Calais since the Middle Ages has been a major port and a very important centre for transport and trading with England. It was annexed by Edward III of England in 1347 and grew into a thriving centre for wool production. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south and south-east. The early history of habitation in the area is limited. The Romans called the settlement Caletum. Julius Caesar mustered 800 to 1,000 sailing boats, five legions and some 2,000 horses at Calais, due to its strategic position, to attack Britannia. Calais thus became part of the county of Boulogne.
Le Devouement des Bourgeois de Calais 1347″, « The Devotion of the Burghers of Calais ». Philippa of Hainault begs King Edward III to spare the lives of the six volunteers for martyrdom. In 1360 the Treaty of Brétigny assigned Guînes, Marck and Calais—collectively the « Pale of Calais »—to English rule in perpetuity, but this assignment was informally and only partially implemented. Calais was regarded for many years as being an integral part of the Kingdom of England, with its representatives sitting in the English Parliament. The continued English hold on Calais however depended on expensively maintained fortifications, as the town lacked any natural defences. In 1532, English king Henry VIII visited Calais and his men calculated that the town had about 2400 beds and stabling to keep some 2000 horses.